PETRICH DURING THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL

PETRICH DURING THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL

 

During the years of the Bulgarian National Revival, Petrich was situated entirely at the foot of Belasitsa Mountain, on both sides of Luda Mara River (nowadays Petrichka River) . Like all the old settlements, it held the memory of its past in the names of certain places. The crossroad for the town burial grounds was called Kalya kapisi – translated as 'the fortress door'. The area of the western part of the town, where today the town’s stadium is situated, was called Groshtchiytsa. Until 1912, a penny (Groschen) was collected per head of livestock or unit of stock for entering the town with goods. The area in the north-western part of the town was called Chamur kapiya (the Mud Door). It was the area on the road connecting Petrich with the town of Stroumitsa. Above the town, in the area called Tarna bair, people dried tarhana food because the place was at a higher altitude and with very clean air. Slightly above that was the area called Gyaur Kalesi, meaning the unbelievers’ tower (fortress). According to the legend, there was an underground entrance in the fortress, which ended in one of the houses in the upper part of town. Southern tower and western wall remains are still visible on site .

From the 15th to the first half of the 19th centuries, Petrich was the centre of merchants from Western Macedonia and Northern Albania . At the foot of the Belasitsa Mountain was the camel road (Devedzhi July) to Constantinople. The overnight stay took place in an area called Hanovete where numerous inns were located. The more famous are Ismail Inn, Zinzhirli Inn, Boyali Inn, Sharen Inn, Hadji Halilov Inn, Prokopov Inn, Gurdjiev Inn, Filchov Inn, Todorov Inn, and Kalinski Inn .

During the Bulgarian National Revival period, Petrich did not have a configured urban planning. As a Medieval heritage, the streets were narrow and crooked, and the houses were low and flimsy in construction. The construction of two-storey houses began only in the 19th century. There were only two squares in town: one in the Vizdol neighbourhood (Horishteto) and one in the Dalboshnitsa neighbourhood – the meadow next to the customs. On the latter, the famous Pehlivani (Oil) fighting was conducted particularly on bey weddings or on holidays.


In 1844, Russian scientist Viktor Grigorovich visited Petrich. He noted that the Bulgarians in the town have neither a church, nor a school . These negative facts changed quickly. Thus, in 1857 the church Sveta Bogoroditsa (Church of the Holy Mother of God) was built. Its construction was accompanied by a great burst of national spirit. At that time, the Bulgarians’ struggle to establish a separate Bulgarian church was not complete. Therefore, the temple was left under the authority of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

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Petrich kaza by 1912

In the 1860s, Filcho Chaveev, Ango Vasilev, Stoyan Papazov, Georgi Urumov, Yane Stoimenov Abadzhi, Ango Tolumov, Andon Manolev, Nikola Chapkanov, Anastas Damyanov, Kochо Vidin, Kostadin Kozhuhar, and many others, were at the forefront of the struggle for the church’s construction. The church construction committee was aware that during the Ottoman rule the church was the only institution with spiritual and moral values upholding the Bulgarian national spirit. It bears witness for the sweet distant past and nourishes the dream of a dignified and free future. Often the schools during the Revival period functioned under the church’s guardianship . The construction committee was created in 1867, and just a year later grew into a Bulgarian civil church municipality.

In 1868 the St. Nikola church was built completely. On February 28, 1870, after a long struggle with the Greek clergy, the Bulgarian Exarchate was established with a Sultan's Farman. The Diocese of Melnik (part of which is also Petrich) is a controversial one and its affiliation must be determined by plebiscite. From this point on, fighting began between the Bulgarians in the city and the grecomans (called Greek citizens), which church should belong to whom. The fight had sharpened a lot. It got to the point that during church services there was a scuffle inside the church – which priest to minister or which singer to be on the right or left side of the temple . Tensions between Bulgarians and Greeks cause the governor of Thessaloniki to pay a visit. The vali initially decided to give Sveta Bogoroditsa church to the Bulgarians because of their majority. The people of Petrich refused. The reason was their desire to keep the Bulgarian element in the neighborhoods "Vizdol", "Permanik", "Varos", "Trap neighborhood" – all of them located around the St. Nikola church. Some of the recognized Petrich leaders were Hristo Boyadzhiatya, Georgi Filipov, Kostadin Vardev, Andon Vardev, Georgi Kovachev, Mancho Georgiev, Boycho Stoyanov, Hadji Zlatin, Atanas Baldzhi, Stoyan Georgiev Marushkin, Hristo Dimov, Krastyo Oprenov, Milush Apostolov Halvadzhiatya, Yakim Halvadzhiatya, Tasho Velkov, and Anastas Tasev Antikadzhiata.


Economically, Bulgarians did not have enough working land, since for a long time the land had belonged to the beys – esnafs and owners. It was only after the reforms of Sultan Abdul Majid that the situation of Bulgarians began to improve. They began to buy agricultural land and produce goods for the market.

Economically, Bulgarians did not have enough working land, since for a long time the land had belonged to the beys – esnafs and owners. It was only after the reforms of Sultan Abdul Majid that the situation of Bulgarians began to improve. They began to buy agricultural land and produce goods for the market.

Despite the Sultan's reformed acts, due to the pressure of the local Turkish upper crust, the angary remained until the second half of the 19th century. People were engaged in running the beys' farms during the harvest season, in autumn sowing, mowing, hauling, and other fieldwork . In 1880, Ango Vasilev and Georgi Urumov, on behalf of Petrich kaza, filed a petition before the High Gate for the angary’s revocation. Because of this bold act, they were detained and imprisoned in Diyarbakir, Asia Minor, where they died due to difficult conditions and the hard prison's regime.

Using the rights promised in the Hatt-i Humayun (Imperial Reform Edict), the Petrich artisans began to organize themselves. By the middle and second half of the 19th century, two Esnaf associations were established in the city: the Kondurdzh-Papukchi and the Simidchi. Subsequently, these two organizations were joined by the esnafs from the other branches: dealers in frieze tailor, coppersmiths, oil-producers, and others. Thus, two powerful Bulgarian organizations were created in the city. Due to this circumstance, in 1909, the shoemaker's craft allocated funds from its treasury to improve the city’s education. At the meetings of this organization, the so-called longi, people gather to discuss issues not only of enlightenment but also of political connotation related to dreams of liberation .[9].


The Russo-Turkish War of Independence, which broke out in 1877 - 1878, ended with the Treaty of San Stefano. Under the treaty, Macedonia was liberated completely, only to be returned months later to Turkey under the Berlin Treaty.

Soon after the Berlin Treaty, the resistance movement of the Bulgarians from Macedonia against the injustice resulted in the Kresna-Razlog Uprising; it was inspired by Metropolitan Nathanael of Ohrid. The uprising reached Ograzhden, encompassing the settlements near the Yakovo village, in the Petrich region. Bulgarians from Petrich did not participate actively in this resistance movement against the Berlin Treaty, because of the many Turkish troops and Muhajiruns (Turkish refugees) accommodated here. Moreover, the local population had been subject to large-scale attacks by demoralized soldiers and bashi-bazouks. The frightened Bulgarian population found refuge and protection only in the Hüsnü Bay konak .[10].

The only Petrich townsman who took part in this resistance movement was Spas Pareychov. He had ties with the revolutionary national liberation and education movement before 1878. Later Spas Pareychov bequeathed his property to the Bulgarian church-school community at the St Nicholas church.

In 1878, despite the Turkish pressure, Bulgarians from the town signed the Memoir of Accession to the Principality of Bulgaria, which all municipalities from Macedonia had sent to Great Gate. In Petrich, this appeal for ethnic justice was signed by Stoyan Georgiev and Georgi Urumov. The great powers rejected the possibility of joining Bulgaria . In such an environment, the Bulgarian population in Petrich focused their efforts on joining the Exarchate.[11]. В такава обстановка българите в Петричко насочват усилията си към присъединяване към Екзархията.

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Печат на Българската църковна община от 1872 г.


In 1892 the Bulgarian Church Community was established under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Exarchate. Patriarchal priest Hristo Trendafilov, who was separated from the Patriarchate, was appointed as the first chairman – bishop of the municipality. He laid the foundation of the Bulgarian church community and formed a council of Bulgarian commissioners . In 1898, priest Hristo Telyatinov of Dojran became the new head of the Bishops. After his departure for a new destination for the Bishops' Deputy, a priest, Alexander Popzakhariev, from the town of Shtip, was sent to the city. As a young and energetic man, he gained great authority in the city, being and respected even by the Turkish authorities. He based the tradition of Epiphany on the open water in the river. K. Mavrodiev, brothers Vardevi, G. Tarnev, Hadji Zlatin, Kostadin Popstoyanov of the Igumenets village, hieromonk Gorazd, Stoyan Trushkov, priest Ivan Antonov, Porfiri Shaynov, and Ivan Liposhliev were recognized as prominent figures of the Bulgarian municipality of Petrich .

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Celebrating the feast of the Saints Cyril and Methodius – 1900

 

An influential figure in Petrich's cultural life was Lazar Anastasov Gurov. In 1894, he began work in Thessaloniki as a word writer in the printing press of the Bulgarian bookkeeper Kone Samardzhiyski. In the same bookstore, Damian Gruev worked as a proofreader. Gurov’s acquaintance with Gruev got him into the works of IMORO. Lazar Gurov received many brochures with revolutionary content. After meeting with revolutionary figures at the Boshnak Hotel, L. Gurov joined the national liberation movement. At the end of 1898, Gurov was tasked by D. Gruev to organize a revolutionary committee in Petrich. Gurov arrived in Petrich, made a meeting, but attendees took the ideas of the organization with reservation and the formation of a committee was not achieved.

In 1899, Georgi Konstantinov from Hotovo village, in the Melnish region, was appointed as headteacher in Petrich. He managed to lay the foundations of IMORO, in which he attracted a number of watchful citizens, namely: Yane Krastev Oprenov, Ivan Mishkov, Dina Popandreev, Anastas Tasev Antikadzhiev, Ivan Timov-Takhsildaro, Mita Nikolov Chapkanov, Georgi Manchev, Grigorov Georgipov, and Konstantin Popo from the village of Gega, Petrich region. The following persons were designated as messengers in the organization: Mita, Totse and Vane Argilovi, Andon Iliev Karnalovaliev, and Yacho Mitov Markov. Due to Petrich's strategic location and the enthusiasm of the local population, revolutionary work was progressing rapidly .[14].

Georgi Konstantinov

 

During the 1899-1900 school’s year, Dimitar Gushtanov from Krushevo village (Demirhisar region) was appointed as a director of the school. He had graduated with a law degree in Lausanne, Switzerland. Led by his patriotic duty, Gushtanov joined the revolutionary movement in Petrich. During this period, the contradictions between the IMRO and the IMORO affected negatively both the rational development of the revolutionary cause and the Bulgarian population. In order to strengthen the position of IMORO in the Ograzhden Mountain, Gushtanov appointed Ivan Anastasov-Garcho, a graduate of the Serbian Bulgarian Pedagogical High School, as a teacher in Gega village. His large-scale activity for the revolutionary organization was notable in his entrusted region. For the same purpose, Hristo Kuslev from the town of Kukush was appointed as teacher in the village of Tsaparevo. Kuslev was a graduate of the Bulgarian high school in Thessaloniki. After the winter of 1900, the revolutionary organization in the kaza had grown steadily thanks to the activity of the district's voivod Ivan Savov .[15].


The first committees in the local villages were established in Gorna Ribnitsa under the presidency of priest Dimitar Ivanov and in Palat village with priest Trendafil. Ivan Atanasov, a teacher in the village of Gega, established committees in the villages Gega and Churilovo, and with the presiding priest Nikola, in the villages Baskaltsi, Robovo and in the village of Zoichene. With his cheta Chr. Kuslev supports the establishment of committees in the villages of Goreme, Tsaparevo, Razdol, Kipsal, Dobri laki, Nikudin, Igralishte, Krundzhilitsa, Zanoga, Dragush, Palat, Sedelets, Velyushets, and Krushitsa . Efforts were made both to improve the cultural and public life. The basis of the Turkish rule had gradually been undermined. For various lawsuits, the population preferred the revolutionary organization over the Turkish rule. There was a trend to gradually and unnoticeably seize the functions of the Turkish authorities.

Gotse Delchev's visit in the first days of January 1901 gave a strong impetus for the development of the Petrich revolutionary movement. It was part of his tour in Macedonia, from October 1900 until the early spring of 1901, during which he inspected Gornozhumaysko, Razlozhko, Maleshevsko, Radovishko, Strumishko, Petrichko, and Melnishko. Gotse Delchev explained the duties of the troops as a whole and separately of the voivodes and the chetniks. The purpose of the inspection was to compensate, at least in part, for the lack of organizational tradition in the revolutionary structure of Bulgarians in Macedonia. All orders were then recorded in the rules of the cheta. G. Delchev had spent the night in Dolene village, in the house of priest Nikola Stoykov, then in Zoichene, in the house of Stoyan Yakov. Accompanied by Ivan Popgeorgiev from the village of Robovo (today Volno), he traveled through Baskaltsi to Gorna Ribnitsa, Tsaparevo, Sushitsa, and thence to the free part of Bulgaria .[17].

In the same 1901, Petrich was visited by Dame Gruev – one of the founders of the IMORO Central Committee. He stayed at Mita Duzov's house where he gathered not only the town’s leadership in the organization, but also other citizens .[18].

6Todorov’s Inn in Petrich, the revolutionaries’ gathering place

After Dimitar Gushtanov's passing into illegality, Hristo Dinev was appointed as a director of the school. The latter was a native of Dojran and a graduate of the Bulgarian high school in Thessaloniki. Upon his arrival, Dinev immediately assumed the leadership of the organization. At that time, the illegal provincial voivode was Ivan Savov and later Manus Georgiev. Manus Georgiev is a native of Novo Selo village, Strumishko. Due to lack of funds, he interrupted his studies at the Serbian Pedagogical High School

After Christo Dinev, the organization's management was entrusted in the hands of the newly appointed director Stoyan Trushkov, a native of Petrich. At that time, Turkish authorities began decisive action throughout Macedonia against the revolutionary organization. In such circumstances, requiring great tact and skill, Stoyan Trushkov skillfully directed the work of IMORO.

From an organizational point of view, the Petrich Revolutionary Committee became an integral part of the Strumicа Revolutionary District, which included Strumica, Radoviš, Maleshevo, Petrich, and Poroy okolias. IMORO troops moved freely around Karshiaka, inhabited only by Bulgarian population. In his memoirs, Hr. Kuslev pointed out the approximate number (494) of riffles distributed in the area, shared among all villages by 30, 40, or 10 according population’s number .[19].

Despite IMORO’s resistance, in the summer of 1902, IMRO headed by General Ivan Tsonchev continued to send troops to Macedonia, where they had successfully campaigned for an armed uprising. According to them, the intervention would provoke the Great Powers to carry out reforms in Macedonia and Edirne regions. The IMRO did not take into account the fact that countries which were positively-minded towards Bulgaria were engaged in problems elsewhere in the world: England with the Boer Wars, while Russia was dealing with the growing controversy in the Middle East .[20].

The IMRO was forcing preparations for an uprising. A decision was made to submit a report to the government outlining the irresistible situation in Macedonia, and particularly in the Gorna Dzhumaya, Petrich, and Maleshevo regions. In Petrich, as evidenced by the report of the Secretary of the British Embassy, Mr. Young, as early as February 1902, a cheta of 24 people was active. A letter from the Bulgarian trade agent in Thessaloniki Atanas Shopov to the Bulgarian diplomatic agent in Constantinople Ivan Geshov revealed that battles took place in April in the villages of Churichene, Smolari, and Breznitsa. The troops were led by the voivods Sofronii Stoyanov, Alex Poroyliya and Apostol Gradoborliya .[21].

Analyzing the capabilities of revolutionaries and the international environment, the government rejected the decision to rebel. Nevertheless, the IMRO implemented its plan and took a course on uprising. Well-armed chetniks crossed the Bulgarian-Turkish border at the end of May and settled in the village of Igumenets (today's Gega). IMRO focused troops in Pirin, Maleshevo, Belasitsa, Krusha, and Payka Mountains. The chetniks numbered 2,500 men, well-armed with Mauser, Berdana, and Krinka rifles and more. The rebel forces used mainly guerrilla tactics.

Analyzing the capabilities of revolutionaries and the international environment, the government rejected the decision to rebel. Nevertheless, the IMRO implemented its plan and took a course on uprising. Well-armed chetniks crossed the Bulgarian-Turkish border at the end of May and settled in the village of Igumenets (today's Gega). IMRO focused troops in Pirin, Maleshevo, Belasitsa, Krusha, and Payka Mountains. The chetniks numbered 2,500 men, well-armed with Mauser, Berdana, and Krinka rifles and more. The rebel forces used mainly guerrilla tactics.[22].


In support of the Bulgarian population, the Great Powers proposed a project for reforms that was never implemented. In the Petrich region, the lack of change in Ottoman politics was reflected in the wide scale of chetnik actions and the opposed repression of the authorities in March, April, and May 1903.

Letters from the IMRO leaders: Midshipman Todor Saev and Second lieutenant Konstantin Nastev, to Yordan Stoyanov, Hristo Sarakinov and Gen. Ivan Tsonchev shows the complex situation in Petrich region in March 1903; situation seen during the tour of the villages of Churilovo, Baskaltsi, Mechkovo, Robovo, Dragush, Igralishte, Nikodin, Kolibite, Dobri Laki, Razdol, Ribnitsa, and Tsaparevo. Most of the Bulgarian priests, teachers, and chieftains in the kaza are arrested. Schools and churches are closed. The soldiers are housed among the population and indulge in any acts that, on May 21, escalate into the looting of Petrich. The city's police commissioner Ismail Effendi issues an order not to speak in Bulgarian, but only in Turkish or Greek in the cafes, taverns, bazaar, and streets.

Undoubtedly, soldiers and bashi-bazouks were robbing with purpose. Authorities were encouraging looting and destruction of property in order to keep the Bulgarian population without subsistence in the coming winter. This policy of the Turkish administration aimed to reduce the revolutionary tensions and migration of the population to the Principality of Bulgaria. Despite the reprisals from September 1902 to July 1903, the fierce fighting did not reduce the desire for insurrection but hampered the arming of local officials.


In such an environment the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising broke out. The general opinion of activists in Petrich coincided with the convictions of the people east of the Vardar River and the Serres Revolutionary District. They believed that the uprising was hasty, unprepared, and should, therefore, be expressed in bold armed actions: interruption of communications, blasting of bridges, and various military equipment, in order to contain Turkish troops in the region thus to relieve the rebelled Bitola Revolutionary District.

Around the Elevation of the Holy Cross in Ograzhden, in the so-called Dolnoribnishka Mountain, all the chetas in the region gathered under the villages of Gyurgevo and Kukovo. After all soldiers were gathered, it was decided 2 military groups to be formed. The first was situated in the northern part of Ograzhden Mountain, and the second one – lead by Yordan Nikolov – in in the southern part of Ograzhden. The northern group was destroyed and scattered around after fighting Turkish military departments in the region of the Tsaparevo village. Yordan Nikolov with his chetniks led successful military actions in the villages Vishlene and Stenik. After Nikolov died in Markova Skala region, the cheta headed north towards the Principality of Bulgaria.

In the course of the uprising and even after its fall, the military garrison in Petrich was strengthened. The Turkish counterattacks by Abdullah Chaush from the villages of Yurukler and Weisel and Shein from Vishlenye intensified. Participants and people suspected of participating in the uprising were arrested. Among the detained from Petrich were Anastas Tasev Antikadzhiev, Dimitar Zikov, Ango Todorov, along with his son Ivan Todorov, and Stoyan Georgiev Marushkin, known for signing the Memoirs of the Macedonian Bulgarians to the Great Powers of 1878. From the village of Eleshnitsa (now Belasitsa) Georgi Naskov, Stoil Tanchev, priest Manasia Velkov, and others were arrested. Arrests in Karshiaka were not made because most of the insurgents transferred to Bulgaria and because of the advocacy of the influential Turks Gongji Alil and Zia Bey . Attempts were made to infiltrate Serbian emissaries. The Bulgarian population had a good response to foreign pressure through reorganization in the IMORO and IMRO.

The ineffective actions of the troops and the failure of the uprising in the Petrich area were rooted in many reasons. Although the Petrich kaza had a long tradition in the Hajduk movement, a committee of the IMORO was established in 1899, that is, only three years before the Gorna Dzhumaya Uprising and four years before the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising. The village committees had an even shorter history. The lack of organizational experience did not allow the high insular readiness of the Bulgarians to be fully channeled and successfully managed by generally recognized leaders at the local level. Greek and Serbian propaganda, as well as combining the Ottoman repressive apparatus with Turkish robberies, were other negative factors. The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising did not achieve its goal of gaining political autonomy in Macedonia and Edirne. However, a long series of reforms began under the 1903 Moorshtag Agreement and the 1904 Bulgaria-Turkey Treaty.


In Petrich, the IMORO was also involved in education and social work. On 25 May, 1905, the implementation of a district ordinance, which was issued by the Melnik Revolutionary Committee and signed by Yane Sandanski, began. This district ordinance fought for the elimination of some superstitions, as well as against some customs: expensive weddings, expensive funeral feasts, unnecessary jewellery at weddings and betrothal, ransom for girls who marry, the bride engagement to be by love and not by imposing the will of the parents. All children were sent only to Bulgarian schools, and the wealthier citizens and peasants, with their own means, were to support the subsistence of poor children so that they could attend schools.

In 1906, a new leadership of the town's revolutionary organization was elected; it included younger people, namely teacher Atanas Ivanov Lyutviev, a native of Prilep town and graduate of the classical high school in Bitola. The same leadership includes Apostle Milushev Divanev, Georgi Kochev Chaprasov, Andreya Ivanov-Shivacha, Ivan Tasushev, Toma Mitov and Hristo Georgiev Filipov - the last two were teachers from Petrich. The following were designated as messengers: Ilia Georgiev Arabadzhiev, Yacho Mitov Markov, Eftim Yanev Tamburadzhiev, Vangel Hristov Getkov, Georgi Todorov, Vane Iliev Argilov, and Vasil Todorov.


The same year, the Turks declared an economic boycott of all Bulgarians in the city: not to trade with Bulgarian merchants, not to visit Bulgarian inns, not to buy from Bulgarian craftsmen. The measures did not work because most families were oriented towards agriculture and thus offset lower incomes from crafts and businesses.

At that time Manush Voivoda with his assistant Vasil Skenderski often came to town. Realizing the plight of the citizens as a result of the Turkish boycott, they called on Georgi Ivanov Pantov, who was a shoemaker in the case of Master Georgi Pardonov, and instructed him to carry out an action. In the middle of the winter Ramadan of the Turks in the fall of 1906, one night Georgi Pantov took a large sack and went to the central mosque. At that time, all the Turks prayed inside the mosque with the doors closed, and all the shoes were left outside in the hall. Without being noticed by the Turks, Pantov collected all the shoes and threw them into an impurity channel in the Prokopov Khan. When the Turks finished the prayer and went outside, they saw that their shoes were missing and the next day orders were made with Bulgarian shoemakers. For this successful action, Manush Georgiev the voivod gave a Nagant pistol as an award to Pantov.

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Manush Georgiev

In Petrich, Manush Georgiev held his meetings at the house of teacher Hristo Georgiev Filipov. The second center of the illegal revolutionaries was the Todorov family's house and inn. For their revolutionary activities, Ivan and Georgi Todorov, as well their father, were often imprisoned at the Eddie Kulle prison in Thessaloniki. In addition to the revolutionary activity, Ivan Todorov also pursued an educational activity as a teacher in the village of Smolari (now in Strumica region), and later as a teacher in the Goreme village. Teacher Hristo Georgiev Filipov and his father Georgi Filipov were arrested for revolutionary activity on the 20 January 1906. After vigorous protests of citizens, the two were released on May 10 1907.

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Yataks of Manush Georgiev

At the end of 1907, the chetniks of Manush Voivoda collided with a company of Turkish troops on the territory of the Petrich region's Vishlenye village. In the ensuing battle, the company was crushed completely.


On February 7, 1908, a regional revolutionary meeting was scheduled in the village of Dolna Ribnitsa. The Petrich delegates were preparing at the restaurant under Antikadzhiev's hotel, but they were spotted by the night-watchman Dache Karanikolov. He denounced them to the Turkish authorities. Indeed, at the beginning of the meeting, the Turkish army from Petrich and the Turkish militia from the villages of Vishlene, Drenovets, Musli Chiflik, Mendovo, and Giurgevo travelled to the village of Dolna Ribnitsa. Commander Manush Georgiev, having grasped the situation at hand, ordered all armed chetniks and delegates to take positions above the village in order to protect the civilian population. The retreats reached the Tranka locality where a terrible fight ensued immediately. The battle was fought all day long and was witnessed by a representative of French military instructors who came to Macedonia under the Murgshtag reforms. After the death of Manush, the leadership of the company was assumed by Vasil Skenderski. In this battle, all Petrich delegates were killed: teacher Alexander Unev from Veles, teacher Toma Mitov, Mikhail Vardev, and Stoyan Tarnadzhiev. A total of 40 people were killed in the battle .[24].

The Turkish authorities allowed only the bodies of Toma Mitov, Mikhail Vardev, and Stoyan Tarnadzhiev to be buried in Petrich. The funeral of the three brave Petrich men was very solemn, and the grateful fellow citizens created the song:

“It cries and sadly mourns the Petrich region, thunder from “Manliher” heard from the Ribnik valley steep."

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At that time, postcards were issued with the faces of the local heroes: Toma Mitov, Mikhail Vardev, and Stoyan Tarnadzhiev, with the written text:

"Everything after us dies, soul and body disappears, only one is beheld the deeds we have done.

After the events, a major Turkish contra-gang became a major generator of ethnic tension. It was led by Shalver Isin, Abdullah Chaush, Weisel and Shain the Vishneli, Arnaut Ismail, Medchiko, and others. At the end of 1907, in one winter night, the same company attacked the house of the prominent townsman Stoyan Georgiev Marushkin. In the morning, he and his grandson were found strangled. During his dinner time, another prominent Bulgarian revivalist, Vasil Ivanov Aglikin, was killed. The list of political killings was growing rapidly. While working on his field, Kocho Yovchev was killed. Atanas Ichov Smilyanski and Grigor Georgiev Nedelchev were killed in the Belasitsa Mountain. Relying on the tacit support of the local administration, the Turkish counter-gang launched purely robbery and looting of the city and villages. Despite the repression, Bulgarians still managed to maintain their successes in educational and political spheres.

At the end of 1907, Pavel Milyukov, an assistant professor at Moscow University, stayed at Anastas Antikadzhiev's hotel. The purpose of his visit was to get to know the manners and customs of the Bulgarian population, the names of the villages and localities. Pavel Milyukov paid a visit to the Bulgarian church community and the St. Nikola church, as well as the surroundings of the city. This provoked a strong interest in Bulgarians in the city, who began to expect possible Russian assistance .[25].


In the course of these events, a constitution, or the so-called Hurriyet, was proclaimed in Turkey on 10 July 1908, with the motto: Hurriyet, adalet, musefat - liberté, egalité, fraternité, i.e. freedom, equality, and brotherhood. This event was met with great joy. All political prisoners were immediately released. Meeting the latter was very solemn, but there were also people, who learned that their loved ones had left their bones in prison.

Due to the available possibilities for legal political life, the revolutionary troops left the Balkans. The voivod Mita Ivanov Aglikin arrived in Petrich with his cheta, part of Yane Sandanski's cheta, led by Grandfather Bozhin and Apostol Milushev Divanev.

The descent of the chetniks into the city was accompanied by big celebrations. Many people from the villages came to the Ograzhden Square under formation, with flags and led by their leaders.

The joy of the population was shortly lived. Sultan Abdul Hamid suspended the constitution. This shocked the Young Turk Revolutionary Committee. The main leader of this movement in Thessaloniki, Mehmed Shevket Pasha, the commander of all Turkish troops in Macedonia, immediately organized a march to Constantinople. At the same time, volunteers were called in to support the resistance to the Sultan. Many Bulgarians volunteered. From Petrich, they were Vangel Hristov Getskov, Kota Georgiev Kovachev, Mita Panov Yanin, Ivan Panchov Popmikhov, and others. They all joined the cheta led by Yane Sandanski. The cheta left for Constantinople in three groups: one with voivod Hristo Chernopeev, the other with Kosta Panitsa, the third group formed at the Demir Hisar station, departed with Yane Sandanski with a special train to Constantinople. The Sandanski cheta took the first position to the Yıldız Palace. Soon the Sultan's troops capitulated. In the meantime, Sandanski managed to resolve an important Bulgarian issue. The Exarchate had purchased a site for cemeteries at a price of 2,000 Turkish Lira; because of the Greek Patriarchate's protest the Turkish authorities did not recognize the purchase. Yane Sandanski, accompanied by volunteer Iliya Iv. Bizhev, appeared before Talat Pasha (Minister of the Internal Affairs), who was asked to legalize the ownership of the Bulgarian cemeteries. Talat Pasha told him that it was not possible for him to fulfill this desire, because this act must go through court. Sandanski, being very resourceful, immediately pointed out a formula to him: "We have volunteers killed. You will allow us for them to be buried in Exarchate cemeteries and this will be one act by which the cemeteries become ours." Talat Pasha readily accepted this decision, even expressing his willingness to send a detachment of Turkish troops to pay tribute to the dead volunteers. Immediately after the visit, Sandanski sent Bizhev to inform the Exarchate of the matter's resolution after which the cemeteries were fenced off and thus the ownership of the site was formed.


Yane Sandanski's influence in Petrich was huge. He demanded the appointment of teachers in all of Petrich district villages, where there were no schools until then. Meetings were often organized and instructions for conducting such activities were given. During this period, the supporters of Yane Sandanski in Petrich were Janush Stoychev, Miho K. Popov, Andon M. Trenkov, Andon G. Malchev, Mita Iliev Argilov, Mita Nikolov Chapkanov, Dimitar Atanasov Baldzhiev, and many other citizens. Another aspect of the education policy was the dispatching of scholarship holders to the Serbian Teacher Training High School, Thessaloniki Men's and Girls' High Schools, the Bitola Military High School and the Hukuk Law School in Thessaloniki. In this way, the intelligentsia was created. At the insistence of Y. Sandanski, a Bulgarian church was built in the area of Rozhen in order to stop the worship of Bulgarians at the Rozhen's Greek monastery. The pursuit of such a cultural activity since 1908 had affected greatly the Greek propaganda in the region. The Greek consuls in Serres, Drama, and Kavala informed the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs in time for Yane Sandanski and his assistant Taskata Vranski's activities. These reports were placed in the book "Bulgarians in Sersko field", which emphasized the fact that Bulgarians in this region were capable economically and culturally.

Yane Sandanski's influence in Petrich was huge. He demanded the appointment of teachers in all of Petrich district villages, where there were no schools until then. Meetings were often organized and instructions for conducting such activities were given. During this period, the supporters of Yane Sandanski in Petrich were Janush Stoychev, Miho K. Popov, Andon M. Trenkov, Andon G. Malchev, Mita Iliev Argilov, Mita Nikolov Chapkanov, Dimitar Atanasov Baldzhiev, and many other citizens. Another aspect of the education policy was the dispatching of scholarship holders to the Serbian Teacher Training High School, Thessaloniki Men's and Girls' High Schools, the Bitola Military High School and the Hukuk Law School in Thessaloniki. In this way, the intelligentsia was created. At the insistence of Y. Sandanski, a Bulgarian church was built in the area of Rozhen in order to stop the worship of Bulgarians at the Rozhen's Greek monastery. The pursuit of such a cultural activity since 1908 had affected greatly the Greek propaganda in the region. The Greek consuls in Serres, Drama, and Kavala informed the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs in time for Yane Sandanski and his assistant Taskata Vranski's activities. These reports were placed in the book "Bulgarians in Sersko field", which emphasized the fact that Bulgarians in this region were capable economically and culturally.


In the fall of 1908, priest Ivan Antonov was appointed chairman of the Bulgarian Church Community in Petrich. The members of the spiritual municipal council were: Georgi Manchev, Ivan Mishkov, Hristo Tsvetkov, Anastas Antikadzhiev, Miho K. Popov, Georgi Hadzhiev, and Nikola Kostadinov Vardev. Priest Ivan Antonov was a graduate of the Constantinople Theological Seminary. He ran a large-scale community activity and managed to establish a boarding school in Petrich to accommodate children from villages in the areas. One year later, brass and string musical instruments were bought to create an urban orchestra and school brass band. The first conductor of the orchestra was teacher Boris Gaygurov from Melnik. The orchestra included teacher Iliya Antonov, Miho K. Popov, Anton G. Malchev, Pantazi Tomov Popov, Ivan Tasushev, Nikola Polizoev, Dine Stoychev, Eftim Andreev the Barber, Georgi Ivanov Mishkov, Tufa Georgiev Pardonov, Ivan Anastasov Antikadzhiev, Kosta Georgiev Filipov, and Vangel Andreev the Barber.

Great efforts were made towards the creation of a school library. The neighbourhood school in the Martin neighbourhood (in the house of Atanas Stoimenov Toptanov) was reopened; it was closed for some time due to slander by the Greeks. A district school was opened in the Dalboshnitsa neighbourhood, in Georgi Manchev's house.

At this time, under the leadership of the third-grade’s school director Ivan Liposhliev, born in the village of Gorni Poroy, a literacy group was formed. In this activity, Ivan Liposhliev was assisted by Miho K. Popov. Apart from educational and cultural initiatives, the Bulgarian municipality also promoted sports activities. In the same 1909, a student youth (gymnastic) group was organized under the guidance of teacher Ilia Antonov.

In 1910, Todor Stoyanov Krastev, a native of Skopje, a graduate of the Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople, was appointed as a headteacher. Upon his arrival, Todor Stoyanov organized a student, church, and city choir. Todor Stoyanov participated in the rendition of the play “Ivanko” by Drumev, and besides him, teachers also included: Dimitar Grigorov Arsov, Elena Yaneva, Magdalena Hadji Deleva; and citizens Andon G. Malchev, Georgi Ivanov Pantov, Nikola Popgeorgiev Chapkanov, Buzho Nikolov Gushterov, Angel Georgiev Filipov, and others.

The political pluralism as a result of the Young Turks coup was too short. A disarmament action was taken, soon followed by the killings of voivods and other prominent legal figures. In response, the revolutionary forces in Petrich began to regroup, with the activists organized into groups of fives and threes. In the city, the selected leaders of these groups were Todor Stoyanov Krastev, Miho K. Popov, Mita Iliev Argilov, Georgi Kochov Chaprazov, and teacher Ivan Todorov was elected head of the districts. At that time, the Turks were beginning to burn the field's boundaries which affected many of the people in Permanik and Vizdol neighborhoods. This action on the part of the Turks was aimed at preventing the local population from going into the woods and from supporting the newly emerging illegal revolutionaries.


On the eve of the Balkan War, Yane Sandanski ordered all revolutionary committees to take measures for the protection of food, more flour to be milled and the water-mills to be restored and put into proper functioning.

The Balkan War of 1912 brought both national liberation and democratic reform to Petrich. Unfortunately, albeit being fundamental, they did not have the effect they had on the Principality of Bulgaria after 1878. The reasons for this were rooted in the continuation of hostilities until 1918 - 1919 and the huge influx of Bulgarian refugees expelled from their homelands .[26].

The war began with the Allies success in all directions. The VII Rila Division, commanded by Gen. G. Todorov, operated in the valley of Middle Struma, in the direction of Petrich - Rupel - Serres and Pechchevo - Shtip - Strumitsa - Dojran - Kukush - Thessaloniki .[27].

The Macedonian-Edirne militia troops were operating in front of the Bulgarian army. In the Struma direction, these were the units of Captain N. Parapanov, Tane Nikolov, Boris Iliev, Doncho Zlatkov, Lazo Delev, N. Gerasimov, N. Lefterov, Karamfilovich, and Milan Trenchev. They were moving together with the troops of IMORO: Mita Aglikin, Ivan Smolarski, Stoyko Bakalov, and Vase Goremcheto .[28].

Captain N. Parapanov formed his cheta on 18 September 1912, and it was enlisted under the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps. It initially included G. Hristov from the village of Hotovo, Kosta Lyutov from the village of Levunovo, Ilyo Vanev from the village of Lovcha (Gotse Delchevsko region), Mityo Hr. Bukov from Dolna Banya (Samokovsko region), Nikola Boyanov from the Rila town, Lazar G. Dermanov from Dobrinishte, Stoyan T. Taskov from Lovech, Tolyo Ilchev from Petrich, Toma Tomov from Levunovo, and Filip Nikolov and Georgi Ivanov from Petrich . By mid-October, the cheta had grown to 93 people

By striking successfully at individual military units, Parapanov blocked the Turkish administration and army. On the evening of 13 October, Parapanov entered the village of Tsaparevo. The frightened Müdürin fled to Petrich and greatly exaggerated the military forces of the Bulgarian cheta. Parapanov destroyed a Turkish battery near Ilindentsi village and smashed a large Turkish company near Raychovo village. On 27 October, 1912, Ali Naki Bey the Turkish kaymakam of the city convened the Turkish nobles at a meeting and after acquainting them with the real situation in details; he recommended that they retreated from Petrich without sacrificing themselves and without making abuse on the Bulgarians. In the evening, the authorities left the town . All prisoners were released on the orders of the gendarmerie's Captain. At night, the majority of the Turkish population also left the city.

The governing body met with the municipal councillors at the chairman (Bishop Hieromonk Kliment Kyosev)'s home to decide what to do; to urge the entire population to participate extensively in defending the town in a potential invasion of the retreating Turkish hordes. A decision was made to send messenger Andon Georgiev Malchev to Starchevo village to meet with Captain Parapanov. Already with the arrival of Malchev, Captain Parapanov ordered the troops to be ready to march to Petrich . Kosta Lyutov and Mito Vukov were also on the line. Many villagers with weapons in hand were called in, militias were created mainly from the village of Karnalovo, Petrichko. The city's management was quickly informed of the arrival of Captain Parapanov with the cheta. They were immediately welcomed. Todor Stoyanov Krastev, Mita Iliev Argilov, Georgi Kochov Chaprazov, Ivan Telyatinov - the director of the third-grade school and the teacher Stoyan Trushkov were in the lead. The cheta was established in front of Ivan Mishkov's shop and from there they were stationed in the city. The next day, on 28 October, voivod Mita Ivanov Aglikin arrived with his assistant Georgi Stoilov Igralishki. They brought with them a crowded cheta and militia

After a meeting with Captain Parapanov, Mita Iv. Aglikin and the leadership of the organization, the decision was made to gather the population in the yard of the Government Konak and to declare to them that from that on, Petrich was liberated and was under Bulgarian rule. Captain Parapanov from the balcony of the Government Konak, in the presence of Mita Ivanov Aglikin, the leading people of the organization and Zia Bay, solemnly announced that Petrich had been liberated and was under Bulgarian rule. Everyone was obliged to obey the decrees laid down by the newly established authority. Immediately Miho Kochov Popov is appointed a mayor with assistants Yanush Stoychev and Zia Bey. The functions of the district government were assumed by the persons Todor Stoyanov Krastev, Ivan Telyatinov, Stoyan Trushkov, Ivan Todorov, and Andon G. Malchev.

10

Captian Nikola Parapanov

Immediately after the Captain Parapanov's cheta occupied the town, a detachment of regular Turkish troops is dispatched from Strumica to Petrich. This unit previously was part of the Petrich garrison. As the troops approached, a few kilometres from the town, Captain Parapanov's cheta, Mita Aglikin's squad and the city's militiamen took a defensive position. At this point, Zia Bay, who was with Captain Parapanov, met the commander of the Turkish detachment. He managed to persuade this army chief not to take any action and not to expose his men to destruction since there were numerous Bulgarian troops in the city. The Turkish array surrendered and was brought in the town. Afterwards, the command of the Second Army and the Bulgarian troops from the 3rd squadron of the 5th Thracian Regiment under the command of Rotmister Goranov was sent to Petrich. The reception on 3 November was very solemn. Teacher Ivan Telyatinov uttered a fiery speech. The bread and hot food bins were also not forgotten. Large quantities of food were being sent to the troops, which helped strengthen the main core from the Bulgarian army to Thessaloniki.


On 28 October, 1912, the turning point of Petrich's development began. Liberation was a long-awaited and patiently prepared event, the result of the Revival's ideal of national unity. Only one year later, began a period in which precisely the skills of self-government and development inherited from the Revival's period would keep Petrich from the horror of wars and strife, economic ruin, and political experiments. Despite the difficulties, the pursuit of education, culture, and a dignified life would create a remarkable society that left a clear mark on the life of Bulgaria and Europe in the period between the two World wars.


List

of the people, born in Petrich, who have graduated Bulgarian schools before the Balkan Wars[32]

 

Georgi Urumov – he was teacher and founder of the village Eleshnitsa's school, Petrich Region. He is working for the Bulgarian population's awakening to set against the heavy Angaria duty. In 1880, Urumov applied for the Angaria's cancellation to the High Gate in Constantinople. He was therefore taken and imprisoned in the town of Diyarbakir, where he died of the severe prison conditions.

 

Georgi Nikolov Chapkanov – he was a teacher in the village of Eleshnitsa, and later in Karnalovo village, where for the first time is opened a Bulgarian school. Chapkanov was ordained a priest in the church of St. Nicholas. For many years he lived as a true spiritual leader and national enlightener.

 

Kostadin (Kocho) D. Kavaldzhiev – he graduated in Kyiv’s Theological Seminary. He was a principal of the Bulgarian class school in Strumica. When the first Bulgarian Bishop in Strumica enters the bishop's see, Kavaldzhiev gave a passionate speech. Later Kavaldzhiev was a teacher in Petrich and then in the Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople. He retired as a principal of the Sliven's high school.

 

Hieromonk Ioseph (Iliya Tasev) – born in a humble family, he graduated in Kazan Theological Seminary (today in Russia). After his return in Bulgaria, comes his announcement as a principal of the Bulgarian class school in Kavadartsi. Later he accepted a monastic rank and was sent to the Metropolitan vicar in Melnik. Then hieromonk Ioseph was located in the town of Radoviš.

 

Todor Pophristov – he was a teacher in the town of Petrich. He graduated fourth grade in the Greek classical high school in Thessaloniki and the second academic year of the Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople. In 1906, after a 12-year teaching career in various parts of Macedonia, he ordained a priest in the church of St. Nikola, Petrich.

 

Stoyan Trushkov Kalinski – he graduated in the Thessaloniki Secondary School (school’s year 1891-1892; a long-time teacher and school principal in Petrich, and later in the towns of Gumendzhe, Melnik, Doyran.

 

Hristo Georgiev Philipov – he was a graduate student in Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople (1902-1903); later a teacher in Petrich. In the period 1931-1946, he served as a parish priest in the church St. Nikola.

 

Archpriest Ivan Antonov – graduated in the Bulgarian Theological Seminary of Constantinople (School’s year 1904-1905); then in 1905-1906, he was a teacher in Serres. Due to his links with IMORO, comes the detention on the Rhodes Island. After his release, he parts for Bulgaria. On August 23, 1908, he was ordained as a priest by Metropolitan Konstantin of Vratsa. In the period from 1908 to 1911, he is a chairman of the Bulgarian church community in Petrich, after which comes his transfer for the same position in the town of Prilep.

 

Toma Trushkov Hristodulov – graduated in Bulgarian High School of Thessaloniki and then a teacher in Petrich. Because of grecomans' slander, he leaves to Sofia region to continue his occupation.

 

Ivan Todorov – graduated in Serres Secondary Pedagogy School.

 

Aneta Popdimitrova Philipova – she is graduated in Bulgarian girls' high school in Thessaloniki and a teacher in Petrich. She married Ivan Kyosev, born in Voden town, a teacher in Petrich in the schools year 1900/1901. He is a graduate of Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople. He received a priesthood ordination; after his wife's death, comes his appointment as a hieromonk and later as a chairman of the Bulgarian Church Community in Petrich.

 

Pavlina (Paulina) Vardeva – she is graduated in Bulgarian girls' high school in Thessaloniki. Later she is a teacher in Petrich and elsewhere. She married Nikola Kotsev, who was born in Štip, and graduated in the Bulgarian Theological Seminary, in 1903-1904. After he leaves Petrich, he assumed the priesthood ordinance; in April, 1911, comes the appointment as a chairman of the church community in Petrich. Just after one-year stay in Petrich, comes his transfer for the same post in Resen but after the outbreak of the Balkan War, he leaves.

 

Mitra Kostakova Ilieva (of father’s name Yaneva Stoimenova) – she is graduated in Bulgarian girls' high school in Thessaloniki; later a teacher in several towns in Macedonia. She marries Kostak Iliev from Radoviš, active teacher and fellow of Gotse Delchev and Murdzhiev.

 

Elena Yaneva Stoimenova – she is graduated in Bulgarian girls' high school in Thessaloniki; she becomes a long-time teacher in Petrich and elsewhere in Macedonia. She is the first to open an elementary school in Martin's neighbourhood on September 6, 1905.

 

Iliya Antonov – graduated in Serres Pedagogy Secondary School in 1907-1908 г. He is a teacher in Petrich during the years 1908-09, 1909-10, and 1910-11. He made great efforts to establish a gymnastic group at the school. He was then transferred as a teacher in Prilep for the 1911-12 school’s year.

 

Nikola Timev Shapkov – graduated in Serres Pedagogy Secondary School; a teacher in Petrich, in the school years 1909/10, 1910/11 г. Then he is relocated as a teacher in Prilep town. After the Balkan War, he returns to Petrich, where he contributed for the development of the choral music.

 

Maria Atanasova Toptanova – she is graduated in the Bulgarian girls' high school in Thessaloniki. She teaches in Petrich and elsewhere in Bulgaria.

 

Toma Mitov Markov – studied, but not graduated from the Serres Secondary Pedagogy School. He was a teacher in Petrich in the school year 1907/08. He was killed on 7 February 1908 in the battle of Dolna Ribnitsa.

 

Anton Stankov – graduated in Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople. He was a teacher in Petrich, in the school’s year 1912/13. Later he occupies different offices in Bulgaria.

 

Paraskeva Philipova – she is the first female Bulgarian teacher in Petrich

 

Nikola Popgeorgiev Chapkanov – studies at the Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople, but due to the Balkan War, he completed his final course at the Sofia Theological Seminary.


[1] В. Кънчов,Избрани произведения, Т І, С.,1970,с.121

[2] [2]Б. Цветков, Селищна мрежа в долината на Средна Струма през Средновековието ІХ – ХVІІ век (по археологически данни), С.2002, с.119

[3] Южна дума, бр.2,16.І.1938

[4] Г. Чапкънов, Доклад за историческото развитие на гр. Петрич, ИМ-Петрич, инв.№279, В.И.Архив, 1957,с.3

[5] В. Григориевич, Очерк путешествия по Европейской Турции, Москва, 1877,с.121

[6] Хр. Христов, Българските общини през Възраждането,С.,1973,с.196.

[7] В. Кънчов,Избрани произведения, Т І, С.,1970,с.123

[8] Кресненско-Разложкото въстание 1878,С.,1970,с.24-25; Хр. Христов, Аграрните отношения в Македония през ХІХ в. и началото на ХХ в.,С.,1964,с.86.

[9] Лонджа – събрание на майстори от един еснаф. На основание на фермана на султан Мустафа ІІІ от 1773 г. в българските земи самостоятелните майстори от един и същи занаят във всеки град образували дружества /еснафи/. Еснафът избирал за свой председател най-добрият и най-честен първомайстор. Двама други майстори, също избирани, заедно с председателя образували постоянно присъствие или настоятелство. Избирали и един чауш /десетар/, който да съобщава на членовете за събранията на лонджата. Настоятелството на еснафа действало шест месеца от Димитровден до Гергьовден и от Гергьовден до Димитровден. След това според местните обичаи всеки еснаф е правил избора за настоятелство на годишните си събрания на своя патронен празник. Така в Петрич Кондурджийския занаят е свиквал годишните отчетни събрания на патронния си празник Св. Спиридон – 12.ХІІ. ст. стил – 25. ХІІ. нов стил.

[10] Кресненско-Разложкото въстание 1878,С.,1970,с.27,34,37,56,68,88,121,143,165.

[11] Хр. Христов, Освобождението на България и политиката на западните държави, С.,1968,с.188-189; Кресненско-Разложкото въстание 1878,С.,1970,с.26,148-149.

[12] Енциклопедия „Пирински край” том ІІ, Благоевград, 2000 г., с.110; Хр. Тасев, Борба за национална просвета в Мелнишкия край, С.,1987, с.51; Целокупна България, №34, 5.ХІ.1879 г.

[13] Г. Чапкънов, Доклад за историческото развитие на гр. Петрич, ИМ-Петрич, инв.№279, В.И.Архив, 1957,с.5.

[14] С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.205.

[15] С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.205

[16] С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.205

[17] С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.206

[18] Г. Чапкънов, Доклад за историческото развитие на гр. Петрич, ИМ-Петрич, инв.№279, В.И.Архив, 1957,с.13-14.

[19] Л. Милетичъ, Движението отсамъ Вардара и борбата съ върховистите, С.,1927 г., с.115

[20] Националноосвободителното движение на македонските и тракийските българи 1878-1944,том ІІ,с.15 и с.19.

[21] С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.206

[22] В. Георгиев, С. Трифонов, Македония и Тракия в борба за свобода, С.,1995 г.,с.111-112. С. Иванов, В търсене на националния идеал 1878-1913, Благоевград, 2009 г., с.207-208.

[23] Н. Попов, Г. Чапкънов, Исторически музей, Инв. №336

[24] Д. Бъчварова, Петрич през вековете,С.,1999,с.34-38

[25] Г. Чапкънов, Доклад за историческото развитие на гр. Петрич, ИМ-Петрич, инв.№279, В.И.Архив, 1957,с.20-21.

 

[26] Пирински край, том ІІ, Благоевград 1999, с.108-109;

[27] Н. Попов, Петрич и Петричко по време на Балканската война, Сборник Война за национално освобождение и обединение 1912 – 1913 г., С.,1989,с.109

[28] Н. Попов, Петрич и Петричко по време на Балканската война, Сборник Война за национално освобождение и обединение 1912 – 1913 г., С.,1989,с.110

[29] Н. Попов, Пиринско дело, ХХХІІІ, бр.284,с.4;Д. Бъчварова, Петрич през вековете,С.1999,с.44-47

[30] ЦВИА, София, ХV,с.29 – Донесение на поручик Горанов;

[31] Д. Бъчварова, Петрич през вековете,С.1999,с.44-47

 

[32] Г. Чапкънов, Доклад за историческото развитие на гр. Петрич, ИМ-Петрич, инв.№279, В.И.Архив, 1957,с.20-21.



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